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Interview Questions and Answers on .Net Framework, OOPS, ASP.Net, C#.Net, SQL Server, WCF Series – Part 23


Question 221 - What are the Event available in Global.asax?

Events
Description
Application_Init Fired when an application initializes or is first called. It's invoked for all HttpApplication object instances.
Application_Start Fired when first instance of the HttpApplication class is created. It allows to create objects that are accessible by all HttpApplication instances.
Session_Start Fired when a new user visits the application Web site.
Application_BeginRequest Fired when an application request is received. It's the first event fired for a request, which is often a page request (URL) that a user enters.
Application_EndRequest The last event fired for an application request.
Application_AuthenticateRequest Fired when the security module has established the current user's identity as valid. Here, the user's credentials have been validated.
Application_Error Fired when an unhandled exception is encountered within the application.
Session_End Fired when a user's session times out, ends, or they leave the application Web site.
Application_End Fired when the last instance of an HttpApplication class is destroyed. It's fired only once during an application's lifetime.

 

Question 222 - What is Caching in ASP.Net?

  • Caching is a technique where we can store frequently used data and Web pages are stored temporarily on local hard disks for later retrieval.
  • This technique improves the access time when multiple users access a Web site simultaneously or a single user accesses a Web site multiple times.
  • Caching can occur on the client (browser caching), on a server between the client and the Web server (proxy / Reverse Proxy Caching), and on the Web server itself (page or data caching).
  • We can classified caching location in 4 way
        • Client Caching (Client Browser)
        • Proxy Caching (In between Client and Server)
        • Reverse Proxy Caching (In between Client and Server)
        • Web Server Caching (Data Caching/ Page Output Caching)


Question 223 - What are the Types of Caching in ASP.Net?

  • Page Output caching [Output caching ] - Is used to fetch information or data at page level. It is best used when the site is mainly static. Used by declaring the output page directive
  • Fragment caching [Output caching ] - Is used to cache the structure level information. It is used when parts of pages change. For example: user control
  • Data Caching - Is used to fetch the information of an application quickly based on the requirements.


Question 224 - How to cache different versions of the same page in ASP.Net?

  • The ways to cache different versions on the same page using ASP.NET cache object is using OutputCache object. Three parameters of OutputCache, has 3 parameters:
  • VarByParam: based on input parameters passed through HTTP POST/GET.
  • VarByHeader: based on the page header content.
  • VayByCustom: based on declaration of an attribute and overriding GetVaryByCustomString handler.
  • VarByControl: varies with the value of properties of ASP objects.


Question 225 - What is a Fragment Cache in ASP.Net?

It is used to store user controls individually within a web form in cache instead of the whole web form as such. The idea is to simply have different cache parameters for different user controls.

control1: <%@ OutputCache Duration="40" VaryByParam="none"%>
control2: <%@ OutputCache Duration="60" VaryByParam="none"%>

If control1 and control2 exist on a single web form together, the values of control1 and control2 would be cached for different durations based on @OutputCache directive.

Question 226 - What are Resource Files in ASP.Net?

  • A resource file is a XML file that contains the strings that we want to Translate into different languages.
  • Can be updated dynamically so that user themselves can modify values in resource files once the application is deployed on the server without re-compiling the entire application itself.
  • The resource file contains key / value pairs.
        • Each pair is an individual resource.
        • Key names are not case sensitive.


Question 227 - What are the Types of Resource Files available in ASP.Net?

There are two types of resources

  • Local Resources
  • Global Resources


Question 228 - What is a Local Resource File in ASP.Net?

  • It is specific to a single Web page and used for providing versions of a Web page in different languages.
  • It must be stored in App_LocalResources sub folder.
  • It must be named in format <WebPageName> [.language / language and culture].resx.


Question 229 - What is a Global Resource File in ASP.Net?

  • Global resource can be read from any page or code that is in the application.
  • Global resource must be stored in App_GlobalResources at the root of the application.


Question 230 - What are the main tags in Web.Config file of ASP.Net application?

<authentication> - This element is used to verify the client's identity when the client requests a page from the server. This is set at the application level. We have four types of authentication modes: “None”, “Windows”, “Forms”, and “Passport”.

<authorization> - The <authorization> tag controls client access to web page resources. This element can be declared at any level (machine, site, application, subdirectory, or page).
<authorization>
<allow users="comma-separated list of users"
roles="comma-separated list of roles"
verbs="comma-separated list of verbs"/>
<deny users="comma-separated list of users"
roles="comma-separated list of roles"
verbs="comma-separated list of verbs"/>
</authorization>

<allow>: Using this tag, we can control access to resources on the basis of the following verbs. In these attributes, we use symbols: ? and *.? means for anonymous users/resources, and * means for all users.
users: This contains the list of user names (comma separated) that are allowed to access the resources.
roles: This contains the list of roles (comma separated) that are allowed to access the resources.
verbs: This contains the list of HTTP verbs to which the action applies (comma separated). It is used to create a rule that applies to a specific type of HTTP request (GET, POST, HEAD, OR DEBUG).

<deny>: Using this tag, we can control access to resources on the basis of the following verbs:
users: This contains the list of users names (comma separated) that are denied access to the resources.
roles: This contains the list of roles (comma separated) that are denied access to the resources.
verbs: This contains the list of HTTP verbs to which the action applies (comma separated). It is used to create a rule that applies to a specific type of HTTP request (GET, POST, HEAD, OR DEBUG).


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About Author: Karthikeyan Anbarasan, Microsoft MVP (Most Valuable Professional) in ASP.NET/IIS Architecture. He is the Founder and Chief Editor of the www.f5debug.net website and has authored books on Windows Phone and Business Intelligence(SSIS). He is also a Passionate Speaker and a Blogger on Microsoft Technologies.

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